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The speed of sound is the distance travelled per minute time by a sound wave propagating through an elastic medium. The speed of sound in an ideal gas depends only on temperature and composition. The speed has a weak dependence on frequency and pressure in ordinary air, which deviates slightly from ideal behaviour.
In the common everyday speech, the speed of sound refers to the speed of sound waves in air. However, the speed of sound varies from substance to substance. Sounds travel most slowly in gases such as air. It travels faster in liquids, and faster still in solids. Sound waves in solids are composed of compression waves just as in gases and liquids, but there is also a different type of sound wave called ashier wave, which occurs only in solids. These different types of waves in solids usually travel at different speeds, as exhibited in seismology. The speed of a compression sound wave in solids is determined by the medium’s compressibility , shear modulus, and density.
In fluid dynamics, the speed of sound in a medium fluid gas or liquid is use as a relative measure of the speed of an object moving through the medium. The speed of an object divided by the speed of sound in the fluid is called the Mach number. Objects moving at speeds greater than Mach 1 are travelling at supersonic speeds.
Sir Isaac Newton computed the speed of sound in air as 979 feet per second (298 m/s), which is too low by about 15%, but had neglected the effect of fluctuating temperature, that was later rectified by Laplace. During the 17th century, there were several attempts to measure the speed of sound accurately, including attempts by Marin Mersenne in 1630 (1,380 Parisian feet per second) Pierre Gassendi in 1635 (1,473 Parisian feet per second) and Robert Boyle (1,125 Parisian feet per second).
In a gas or liquid, the sound is consists of compression waves. In solids, waves propagate as two different types. A longitudinal wave is associated with compression and decompression in the direction of travel, which is the same process as all sound waves in gases and liquids. A transverse wave, called a shear wave in solids, is due to elastic deformation of the medium perpendicular to the direction of wave travel. The direction of shear deformation is called the “polarisation” of this type of wave. In general, transverse waves as a pair of orthogonal polarisation. These different waves, compression waves and the different polarisation of shear waves may have different speeds at the same frequency. Therefore, they arrive at an observer at different times, an extreme example being an earthquake, where sharp compression waves arrive first, and rocking transverse seconds later.
The speed of a compression wave in the fluids determined by the medium’s compressibility and density. In solids, the compression waves are analogous to those in fluids, depending on compressibility, density, and the additional factor of shear modulus. The speed of shear waves, which can occur only in solids, is determined simply by the solid material’s shear modulus and density.
Jet flying faster with the speed of sound is a milestone. Now private jet flightsВ are the well-sought aircraft’s for a speedy and safe travel by know-how travellers. Just like the 4 minute mile, traveling at the speed of sound was thought to be impossible to achieve by human kind not until Roger Bannister proved the fallacy of this notion when many have conquered the mile in less than three-minutes. Such accomplishment paved way to the assurance of every passenger to fly on private jet flights.