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The History of Aviation
Aviation is the act of transporting people and goods throughout the world. It is a part of the aeronautics that focuses on the design, development, operation, production, and the use of the aircraft.
The term aviation was derived from the Latin word, “avis”, meaning bird or flying. This was invented by the French writer and naval officer, Gabriel La Landelle way back in 1870’s.
The modernized aviation started on November 21, 1783, when the Montgolfier brothers designed a hot air balloon that initially released a human lighter-than-air flight. In 1784, it was levelled up to a human-powered dirigible. This was first flown by Jean-Pierre Blanchard and was able to cross the English Channel in the mid-1780.
In 1799, a concept of a modernized aircraft with a fixed-wing flying machine and a separate propulsion, lift, and control systems was started by Sir George Cayley – an English engineer who has been considered as one of the people who has contributed a great impact in the history of aeronautics. He’s also known as the “father of aviation”.
The powered and controlled aircraft was first flown by the Wright brothers. They were the ones who initially used gliders and free flights. They, later on, have combined both that resulted in the widespread adoption of the ailerons or hinged flight control surface.
During the World War 1, heavier-than-air powered aircraft were the ones usually used because it’s easy to control and practical.
There are two types of aviation – the civil and the military aviation.
Civil aviation is also known as the non-military aviation, including commercial and private jet charters. There are two categories of the civil aviation,namely scheduled air transport and the general aviation.
The scheduled air transport includes the passengers and cargos flights that often have regularly scheduled routes while the general aviation includes the commercial and private jet charters.
Almost all of the countries around the world are members of the International Civil Aviation Organization. Their mission is to achieve a common goal, and that is to establish standards and practices for civil aviation.
The five major manufacturers of civil transport aircraft are the Europe-based Airbus, US-based Boeing, Canada-based Bombardier, Brazil-based Embraer, and Russia-based United Aircraft Corporation.
The general aviation includes the commercial and private, non-scheduled civil flying. The commercial aviation is the type of aviation that operates aircraft for hire in transporting passengers or cargos. Not just that, it may also include business flights, chartered air flights, flight training, air ambulance, ballooning, gliding, parachuting, and many more.
On the other hand, military aviation is exclusive for militaries like bombers and fighters. This is the type of aviation that is used in reconnaissance and surveillance, primarily being used to gather information or intelligence. The military aircraft are usually equipped with infrared, photographic, and radar sensors. Some are also equipped with special electronic gear that can detect submarines.